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Grammar Library

Casual sentence ender

です

Polite sentence ender

だった

Casual past tense marker

でした

Polite, past tense marker

The は particle: basic

これ

This

それ

That

あれ

That over there

どれ

Which?

ここ

Here

そこ

There

あそこ

Over there

どこ

Where

ます

Polite form: present tense affirmative

ません

Polite form: present tense negative

Possesion/attribute marker

い-adjectives

I-adjectives

な-adjectives

Na-adjectives

くない

I-adjectives negative form

くありません

I-adjectives negative form (polite)

じゃない

To not be (casual)

ではない

To not be (formal)

じゃなかった

Was not (casual)

ではなかった

Was not (formal)

ではありません

Is not (polite + formal)

じゃありません

Is not (semi polite)

The が particle: basic

Verb (dict form)

Casual form verbs: present affirmative

(Verb)ない

Casual form verbs: present negative

Direct object marker

い-adjectives (affirmative past tense)

I-adjectives (affirmative past tense)

な-adjectives (affirmative past tense)

Na-adjectives (affirmative past tense)

な-adjectives (negative past tense)

Na-adjectives (negative past tense)

〜くなかった

I-adjectives negative past tense

ちゃん

Chan (honorific)

さん

San (honorific)

くん

Kun (honorific)

さま

Sama (honorific)

Question particle

この

This(noun)

その

That(noun)

あの

That (noun) over there

どの

Which(noun)

Nominalizer

のが好き・のが嫌い

Like/dislike (verbs)

好きな~・嫌いな~

Like(noun)/dislike(noun)

~好き・~嫌い

Like/dislike

Inclusion marker ("too/also")

~上手

Good at

~下手

To be bad at

~得意

Good with

~苦手

Bad with

~ある

There is (non-living)

~いる

There is (living)

Locational/target marker

た form

Casual past tense (verbs)

ました

Polite form: past tense affirmative

ませんでした

Polite form: past negative (verbs)

(verb)なかった

Casual past negative (verbs)

Mode of transport/purpose marker

他動詞

Transitive verbs

自動詞

Intransitive verbs

する

To do (irregular verb)

来る

To come (irregular verb)

行く

To go (irregular verb)

~つ

General counter

~個

General counter

~人

Counter for people

Time marker

~の前

In front of

~の後ろ

Behind

~の横

Beside

~前に

Before

~後で/に

After/later

まだ

Still/not yet

もう

Already/anymore

〜か~か

Or

Sentence ender

Sentence ender

よね

Sentence ender

①(Interrogative)か

Someone/somewhere/etc

(Interrogative)も

No one/nowhere/etc.

だろう

I think; it seems; probably; right?

でしょう

I think; it seems; probably; right? (polite)

から

Because

ので

Because of; given that

なくちゃ・なきゃ

Gotta

~から

From

~まで

To; until

~の中・上・下

Inside/above/under

~より

From

~ほうがいい

Had better; it'd be better to; should

より~ほうが

X is more than Y

~より

More than

~ほうが

Than/more than

~の中で~が一番

The best/most of X group

~が一番

The best/most

の・ん

Explanatory particle

こと

Nominalizer

~たことがある

Past experiences

Method/tool marker

Direction/destination marker

Locational marker: in; at

Total time indicator/time marker

〜たい

To want to...

なる

To become

〜にきめる

To decide on...

〜になる

X has been decided/has arisen

〜にする

To decide on something

(Verb)て~

Link actions together

Connecting particle

一緒に

Together

Quotation marker

って

Quotation marker (casual)/Exclamatory marker/Casual topic marker

て form (adjectives)

Te form for adjectives

Connector: and/or (non-exhaustive)

(や)〜など

Things such as...

たり~たり

Do things like X and Y

〜つもり

Plan/intent to...

〜予定

Plan/intention

〜なくて

Not X, so Y/Because X, Y

〜ないで

Without...

〜ないで

Don't do (casual)

ただ~(だけ)

Only/free/just

だけ

Only/just

しか〜ない

Only/just

てから

After/since doing...

そして

And then...

それから

Since then/After that

それで

And so/And therefore

〜てはいけない

Must not...

〜なくてはいけない

Must/need to do...

ちゃいけない・じゃいけない

Must not/must (casual)

くらい / ぐらい

Approximately/To X extent

頃(ころ / ごろ)

Around/When

〜ても・~でも・〜てもいい

Even/Even if/May I...?/You may...

〜なくても/〜なくてもいい

Even/Even if/Don't have to...

でも

But

けど

But

しかし

But/However ~

〜すぎる

Too much

〜てください

Please do...

〜ないでください

Please don't do...

(Verb)て

Casual command/suggestion

~ている

...ing (ongoing action/state)

まだ~ている

Has not yet.../Still...

もう〜ている

Has already.../Already...

〜よう

Volitional form

〜ませんか

Shall we...?

ましょう

Let's...

ましょうか

Shall I...?/Shall we...?

でも

Or something

〜(て)あげる

To do (for)/To give

〜(て)くれる

Something is done for the speaker/To do (for)/To give

〜(て)もらう

To have someone do/To receive

Indirect object marker (giving/receiving)

~かどうか

Whether or not /if

②(Interrogative)か

Where/when/who/what...

中・内

Inside

隣・横

Beside

Verb of motion marker

(Number)しか~ない

Only...

~も~ない

Not even.../Also is not...

~と言ってもいい

You could say...

あまり~ない

Not really...

全然~(ない)

(Not) at all

絶対

Definitely; certainly

〜ていく

To go do X/X goes on

〜てくる

To come do X/X starts.../To go do X and come back

〜(は)〜のひとつだ

X is one of (Category)

連体詞

Pre-noun adjectival

いつも

Always

たいてい

Generally/usually

だいたい

Generally/about

ときどき

Sometimes

~て

The means/manner of an action

〜ていた

Was/had/is.. (past continuous)

ずっと

Always/for ages

〜られる/える

Potential form

〜くする

To make something... (adjective)

〜くなる

To become... (adjective)

ことにする

To decide on

ことになる

Something is decided

かもしれない

Might/maybe/probably

まで

Even/to X extent

Even

ことができる

Can/able to...

~かしら

I wonder... (feminine)

なあ

Sentence ender

Sentence ender (masculine)

~かな

I wonder...

の・なの

Sentence ender

~でできる

Made from

~からできる

Made from

(です・だ)が

But

~は~(が・けど)~は......

Contrasting statements

~ない~はない

There is no... that is not/does not

のに

Despite/even though

けれども

But/however

ただし

However

毎〜

Every (time-related noun)

ごとに

Every/each (interval)

〜そう(だ)

Looks like/appears...

〜そう(だ・です)

I hear/apparently... (hearsay)

〜ようだ

It seems/appears... (formal)

〜みたい(だ)

Seems like/is similar

〜らしい

It seems/apparently...

〜らしい

Typical.../...like

〜てみる

Try something

〜そうに ・〜そうな

Looks like/seems...

私・僕・うち・俺

First person pronouns/"I"

こんな・そんな・あんな・どんな

This/that (much)...; Like this/that; How much

こんなに・そんなに・あんなに・どんなに

This much/that much/how much

〜ように・~ような

Like/as

まい~のように

Almost every...

彼・彼女・あいつ

"He/She/Them": Third-Person Pronouns in Japanese

あなた・君・お前

"You": Second-Person Pronouns in Japanese

ら・たち

Pluralizing suffixes

~ておく

To do something in advance/to go ahead and...

~みたいな

Like

~みたいに

Like

~にみえる

To look/seem/appear

~とみえる

It looks like/seems...

こう・そう・ああ・どう

Like this/like that/how

~ように

In order to...

ようになる

To become X/to reach Y point

ようにする

To try to/make sure that...

~な

Don't do... (command)

~ろ・~え

Do... (imperative)

~ようにいう

Indirect Imperatives, "Tell someone to do..."

~なくてはならない

Must do.../need to do...

~ば

Conditional form

If/when: conditional marker

~ばいい・〜ばよかった

Should.../should have...

~といい

I hope.../It would be nice if...

〜てよかった

I’m glad that...

である

Written language marker

〜(が)ほしい

To want X

~てほしい

I want someone to do X/I want X to happen

〜ないといけない

Must do...

〜たら

Conditional form: If/when

〜なら

Conditional marker: If/topic marker

〜なければいけない

Must/Have to

〜なければならない

Must/Have to

〜場合は

In the event of...

〜たらどう

Why don't you.../How about...

〜たらいい(ですか)

What should I do?

例えば

For example

〜ことがある

There are times.../Sometimes...

〜とき

When/At the time of...

(noun)ばかり

Nothing but.../Only...

〜てばかり(いる)

Nothing but.../Only...

〜たばかり

Just...

〜だけでなく

Not only X, but also Y...

には ①

Locational compound particle

には ②

In order to.../For...

(present tense casual verb)ところ

About to...

〜たところ

Just (finished)...

〜ているところ

Currently.../In the middle of...

~出す

To start/to (suddenly) begin...

~始める

To start/to begin...

~続ける

To continue to...

〜終わる

To finish

~たがる・~ほしがる

(Somone) wants to do.../(Someone) wants...

〜がる

To act as if/To show signs of...

〜がり

Personality descriptor

〜に気がつく

To notice/realize

〜直す

To re-do

〜やすい

Easy to/tends to

〜づらい

Difficult to...

〜にくい

Difficult to...

それでも

Even so/despite

それに

And/what's more...

さすが

Naturally/as expected/... is inevitable

やっぱり

As expected

〜やる

To give/to do a favor (casual)

差し上げる

To give (polite)

〜ください

Please (give me/do)...

お願いします

Polite request

〜なさい

Do... (polite + firm)

〜な

Do... (casual)

〜が必要

... Is necessary

〜必要がある

There is a need to...

~はず

Should be...

~はずがない

There's no way...

尊敬語

Respectful language

自分

First/second/third-person pronoun - "Self"

受身形

Passive form

~方

The way/manner of...

謙譲語

Humble language

~いただく

Humble requests

~てくれてありがとう

Thanks for doing X for me

(の)でしょうか・(の)だろうか

I wonder.../Is it...?

じゃないか・ではないか

Isn't it?/Right?

While/during...

間に

While/during (X happened)

~ながら

While/simultaneously

~て・~なくて

Because/due to...

(Noun)で

て form for nouns

~てすみません・~てごめんなさい

I'm sorry about...

以上・以下・以外

More/less than/except

~さ

Nominalized adjectives/"-ness"

~み

Nominalized adjective/"-ness"

~させる・~せる

Causative form

~させて(ください・くれる・いただく・もらう)

Please allow me to...

てある

Is/has been done (resulting state)

~ために

In order to.../as a result of...

てすみません

I’m sorry for

~てしまう / ちゃう

To do (accidentally/regretably/completely)

~させられる

Causative-passive form/to be forced to do...

~他(に・は・には・にも・も・の)

Other/something else...

~化

"-ization"

~風

In the style of...

~ようと思う

Planning to/thinking of doing...

~と思われている・考えられている・言われている

It is thought/said that...

~し~(し)

And.../and what's more...

と思う(とおもう)

to think…; I think…; you think…

とか~とか

among other things; such as; like ~

~と(も)言える

You could say...

~うちに

During/while/before...

~中

Currently/during...

あまり

So... (that)

あまりに(も)~

Excessively/so much... that

~べき(だ)

Ought to do/must do...

なかなか~

Quite/considerably...

なかなか~ない

Not... at all/far from...

ちゃんと・きちんと・しっかり

Properly/precise/sturdy

~によると ・~によれば

According to...

~という(noun)

A noun called/where...

~というのは

The thing called X...

~ということだ・~とのことだ

It is said/apparently...

~ということ

That means...

~つう

Casual/slang quotation

全く~ない

Not... at all

~なし

Without

~ことだ

Should do/need to do... (strong advice)

~こと

Must do... (rules)

~つもりで

With the intention of.../pretending/as if

~つもりだった

I intended to/I thought I...

~ずつ

... At a time/each

それでは・それじゃ・じゃあ

Well then/in that case/with that

~では

Compound particle (in/by)

~として

As a...

~は別として

Putting X aside.../aside from...

一体

What the heck/as one

~ものだ

General fact/advice/exclamation/nostalgia

~という理由で

Due to/for the reason...

~というのは事実だ

It is a fact that...

~どころか

Far from X, Y/not only X, but Y

~代わりに

Instead of/in exchange for...

~に代わって・~に代わり

Instead of/on behalf of...

~っけ

Clarification/nostalgia/rhetorical question marker

~わ

Emphatic sentence ender

~ぜ

Masculine sentence ender

せっかく~

With great pains/long awaited/special

~がち

Tend to/often... (negative tendancy/trend)

~まま

"As is"

~っぱなし

Leave X in Y state

~っぽい

Seems.../-ish

~気味

A bit.../-ish

~せい

Due to/X is at fault for...

~おかげで

Thanks to/because of...

~くせに

In spite of/even though...

一度に

At once

わざわざ

Go out of one's way to

ますます

More and more/less and less

つい

Unintentionally

ついに

Finally/in the end

前者・後者

Former and Latter

まさか

No way/don’t tell me...

~同士

Among/fellow...

わざと

On purpose

もしかしたら・もしかすると

Might

もしかして

Perhaps/by any chance

もし(も)〜たら

If/in the case

どうしても

No matter what/really/simply

どんなに~ても

No matter how (much)

〜とおり

As (thought/expected)/in the same way as

次第(しだい)①

As soon as

次第(しだい)②

Depending on

〜でよければ

If X is alright

できれば〜

If possible...

ふりをする

To pretend/to act as if

~込む(こむ)

To do... (well/thoroughly/for a long time/inside)

~切る(きる)

To do X completely/to the end

~通す(とおす)

To do: until the end/continuously/through

~上げる・上がる

Finish doing X

~たて

Just done/fresh/new

~かける

Half-/not yet finished/in the middle of~/nearly/almost

(から)〜にかけて

From...until/through

~きり

Since/only/always/totally

とすると

If that was the case/assuming

としたら

If it were the case that/assuming

とすれば

If it were the case that/assuming

すると

Thereupon/then

~のは~だ

It's X that's Y

~のは~の方だ

X is the one that's Y

〜型

Shapes/moulds/patterns/styles

姿 (すがた)

Form

~向け(むけ)

Intended for/aimed at

~向き(むき)

Suitable for

~てごらん

Try and do X (soft command)

への・での

の compound particles ①

からの・までの

の compound particles ②

との①・との②

の compound particles ③

ところが

However/even though

〜たところ

When X, Y

ところで

By the way...

ほど

Approximations/degree/extent

ほど~ない

Not as X as Y/X is the most...

~ば~ほど

The more you X the more you Y

〜のに

(In order) to do X/for...

〜的(てき)

-like/-al/-ly

もの / もん

‘Cause/excuse

〜ずに

Without doing X

〜ず

Didn't do X (so Y)

〜ずにはいられない

Cannot help but…

〜最中に(さいちゅうに)

While/during/in the middle of

〜上で①

Upon/after

〜上で②

When/for/in order to

すでに

Already been done/taken place/is already the case

〜に基づく

Based on/on the basis of ~

~点

An important point

なぜなら〜から

Because/the reason is

こそ①

Precisely/definitely

こそ②:〜からこそ・それこそ

Precisely because/*that* is X

~一方だ

X continues to Y

~一方で

On one hand/doing X, and also doing Y

~ばかりで

Only/just/nothing but...

~ばかりでなく

Not only X, but also Y

~ばかりだ

Continue to (go in a negative direction)/All one can do is X

~ばかりに

Simply because/on account of~ (negative result)

〜は~ことなのだ

X means that...

~は~で有名

X is famous for Y

〜ことはない①

There’s no need to...

〜ことはない②

X never happens/won't happen

〜と言っても

Even if one says X...

第一

The "first"

と言うと(というと)

Speaking of X.../If you say X/by X, do you mean Y

と言えば(といえば)

Speaking of X/X is X but,...

と言ったら(といったら)

Speaking of X.../When it comes to X

ながらも

Even though...

にとって

to; for; concerning; as far as ... is concerned; regarding ~

において / における

In terms of X

~合う①

Together

につれて

as; in proportion to; with; as… then ~

~合う②

To fit with X

について

Concerning/regarding/about

〜おきに

Every/each (interval)

〜たびに

Every time/whenever

あるいは

Perhaps/or

によって / による

by means of; due to; owing to; because of ~

を中心に(をちゅうしんに)

focused on; centered on

〜たとたん(に)

As soon as

そのため(に)

Due to that/for that reason

をはじめ

for example; starting with

直ちに(ただちに)

Immediately

を込めて(をこめて)

filled with; full of

を通じて / を通して(をつうじて / をとおして)

through; via; throughout; by ~

さえ

even; so much as; not even

も~ば~も

and; also; as well; either/or; neither/nor

なるべく

as much as possible

さえ~ば

if only; as long as ~

にしたがって

as; therefore; in accordance with; according to; consequently ~

に慣れる(になれる)

to be used to something

際に(さいに)

when; at the time of; in the case of ~

さらに

furthermore; again; more and more ~

さて

conjunction: well; now; then ~

せいぜい

at the most; at best; to the utmost

しばらく

for a moment; for a while; for the time being

しかない

have no choice but ~

それとも

or; or else ~

そうもない /そうにない

very unlikely to; showing no signs of ~

すなわち

in other words; namely ~

数量 + は(すうりょう + は)

at least ~

たものだ

used to do; would often do

確かに(たしかに)

surely, certainly ~

たとえ~ても

even if… is the case

たって

even if; even though; no matter how ~

てはじめて

not until; only after [x] did I

てからでないと

must first do; cannot do without first doing ~

てしょうがない・てしかたがない

can't help but; very; extremely ~

て済む(てすむ)

sufficient by; no problem to; resolve by ~

てはいけないから

in order to not~; to prevent a negative situation

ている場合じゃない(ているばあいじゃない)

this is no time to be doing ~

ても始まらない(てもはじまらない)

even if you... it’s no use; there is no point to ~

ても構わない(てもかまわない)

it doesn't matter if ~

てもしょうがない / てもしかたがない

there's no point to~; it's no use to~; it cannot be helped

というより

rather than ~

とみえる / とみえて

it seems that ~

と共に(とともに)

together with; at the same time as; as well as ~

途中で/途中に(とちゅうで/とちゅうに)

on the way; in the middle of ~

とても~ない

cannot possibly be; hardly ~

とは限らない(とはかぎらない)

not necessarily so; is not always true

つい

accidentally; unintentionally; by mistake

ついに

finally; at last; in the end ~

ついでに

while, incidentally, at the same time, on the way ~

つまり

in other words; in summary; in short ~

上に(うえに)

as well; besides; in addition to; not only… but also ~

はもちろん

not to mention; not only ... but also ~

わけだ

for that reason; no wonder; as you’d expect; the fact is; so you mean ~

わけではない

it doesn’t mean that; it is not the case that; I don’t mean that; it is not true that ~

わけがない

there is no way that; it is impossible to ~

わけにはいかない

must not; cannot afford to; must, have no choice but to ~

割に(わりに)

considering ~; for ~; despite ~

わざわざ

to go to the trouble of; to go out of one's way to ~

よりも

in comparison to; rather than; more than ~

ようがない

there is no way to; it’s impossible to ~

ような気がする(ようなきがする)

have a feeling that; feels like; seems like; think that ~

ように見える(ようにみえる)

to look; to seem; to appear ~

ようとしない

not try to; not make an effort to ~

ようとする

try to; attempt to; be about to ~

に違いない(にちがいない)

I’m sure/ certain; no doubt that ~

がたい

very difficult to; hard to ~

ふと

suddenly; accidentally; unexpectedly; unintentionally ~

ことは~が

although; but ~

んだって

I hear that; heard that ~

むしろ

rather; instead; better ~

に反して(にはんして)

against; contrary to; in contrast to ~

に関する / に関して(にかんする / にかんして)

about; regarding; related to ~

ぶりに

for the first time in (period of time)

まるで

as if; as though; just like ~

まさか

there's no way; that's impossible; you must be joking

いくら~ても

no matter how ~

に比べて(にくらべて)

Compared to; in comparison to ~

めったに~ない

hardly; rarely; seldom

にしても

even if; even though; regardless of ~

にしては

for; considering it’s (something or someone)

に対して(にたいして)

towards; against; regarding; in contrast with​ ~

ないと

must do; unless/if you don't ~

別に~ない(べつに~ない)

not really, not particularly

べきではない

should not do; must not do ~

決して~ない(けっして~ない)

never; by no means ~

結局(けっきょく)

after all; eventually; in the end ~

結果(けっか)

as a result of; after ~

から〜にかけて

through; from [A] to [B]

だけ

as much as ~

だけど

but; however; although; regarding ~

だらけ

full of; covered with; a lot of (something undesirable)

ば~のに

Would have/should have/if only ~

~ばいい

Should do...

じゃない

maybe; most likely; confirmation of information; express surprise towards listener

切れない(きれない)

(Delete) unable to do; too much to finish/complete

なんか / なんて / など

give examples; show modesty; make light of ~

ことから

from the fact that ~

ことになっている

to be expected to; to be scheduled to; it has been decided as a rule that ~

か何か(かなにか)

or something ~

ないことはない

can do; is not impossible to ~

あげく

to end up; in the end; finally; after all ~

ばかり

about, approximately ~

ばかりか

not only... but also; as well as ~

ちなみに

by the way; in this connection; incidentally; (conjunction)

ちっとも~ない

(not) at all; (not) in the least ~

だけあって

being the case; precisely because; as expected from ~

だけましだ

it’s better than; one should feel grateful for ~

だけに

being the case; precisely because; as one would expect

だけのことはある

no wonder; as expected of; not ... for nothing; not ... with nothing to show for it

だけは

to do all that one can

だって

because; but; after all; even; too

でしかない

merely; nothing but; no more than; there is only ~

どころではない

not the time for; not the place for; far from; anything but ~

どうやら

possibly; apparently; seems like; somehow; barely ~

どうせ

anyhow; in any case; at any rate; after all; no matter what

得ない(えない)

unable to; cannot; it is not possible to ~

得る(える / うる)

can; to be able to; is possible to~

再び(ふたたび)

again; once more

ふうに

this way; that way; in such a way; how

がきっかけで / をきっかけに

with… as a start; as a result of; taking advantage of ~

looks like; seems like; appears to ~

逆に(ぎゃくに)

conversely; on the contrary ~

反面(はんめん)

while, although; on the other hand~

果たして(はたして)

as was expected; sure enough; really; actually ~

一応(いちおう)

more or less; pretty much; roughly; tentatively ~

以上に(いじょうに)

more than; not less than; beyond ~

以上は(いじょうは)

because; since; seeing that ~

いきなり

abruptly; suddenly; all of a sudden; without warning

一気に(いっきに)

in one go; without stopping; all at once; immediately; instantly; right away ~

いわゆる

what is called; as it is called; the so-called; so to speak​

いよいよ

at last; finally; beyond doubt

上(じょう)

for the sake of; from the standpoint of; as a matter of; in terms of ~

かのように

as if; just like ~

かと思ったら(かとおもったら)

just when; no sooner than ~

か~ないかのうちに

just as; right after; as soon as ~

かえって

on the contrary; rather; all the more; surprisingly ~

限り(かぎり)

as long as; while… is the case; as far as; while ~

甲斐がある(かいがある)

it’s worth one’s efforts to do something

かねない

(someone) might do something; something might happen

かねる

unable to do something; can’t do something

から言うと(からいうと)

in terms of; from the point of view of ~

からこそ

precisely because ~

から見ると(からみると)

from the point of view of; by the look of; judging from ~

からには

now that; since; so long as; because ~

からして

judging from; based on; since; from; even ~

からすると / からすれば

judging from; considering; by the look of ~

からと言って(からといって)

just because; even if; even though ~

っこない

no chance of; … is definitely not possible

ことだから

because; since ~

ことか

how…!; what…!

ことなく

without doing something even once

ことに

emphasize speaker's feelings; to my (surprise/etc)

ことにはならない

just because… doesn’t mean ~

くせして

although; despite the fact that; even though ~

まだしも

rather; better​ ~

まい

will not; will probably not; intend not to; must not ~

もかまわず

without caring; without worrying about ~

も当然だ(もとうぜんだ)

it’s only natural; no wonder; might as well ~

ものだから

so; therefore; the reason for something

ものではない

shouldn’t do something; it’s impossible to ~

ものがある

there is such a thing; to be the case that​; feels like ~

ものか / もんか

as if (something untrue were actually true); there's no way ~

ものなら

if I/we could; if ,A is possible, then ,B; if one can do something, then ~

ものの

but; although; even though ~

もっとも

but then; although; though ~

もう少しで(もうすこしで)

almost; nearly, close to ~

ないではいられない

can’t help but feel; can’t help but do ~

ないことには~ない

unless you ~

中を / 中では(なかを / なかでは)

in; on; in the midst of; when; while ~

なくはない / なくもない

it’s not that; I may (double negative)

なくて済む(なくてすむ)

get by without doing ~

何も~ない(なにも~ない)

nothing; (not) ~ at all; there’s no need to ~

なお

still; yet​; furthermore; in addition ~

ねばならない

have to do; must; should ~

にあたって

at the time; on the occasion of ~

にほかならない

nothing but; none other than ~

に限らず(にかぎらず)

not just; not only... but also ~

に限る(にかぎる)

is best; nothing is better than ~

に限って(にかぎって)

only; in particular ~

に関わらず(にかかわらず)

in spite of; regardless of ~

に関わる(にかかわる)

to relate to; to have to do with; relating to ~

に決まっている(にきまっている)

certainly; I’m sure/certain that; it must be the case that ~

に越したことはない(にこしたことはない)

it’s best that, there’s nothing better than ~

に応えて(にこたえて)

in response to ~

に加えて(にくわえて)

in addition ~

に向かって(にむかって)

to face; to go towards; to head to ~

に応じて(におうじて)

depending on; in accordance with ~

に際して(にさいして)

on the occasion of; at the time of ~

に先立ち(にさきだち)

before; prior to ~

にせよ/ にしろ

even if; regardless; whether... or ~

にしろ~にしろ

whether… or ~

にしたら / にすれば

from one’s perspective; from the point of view of ~

にしても~にしても

regardless of whether ~

に沿って(にそって)

along with; in accordance with ~

に相違ない(にそういない)

without a doubt; certain; sure

に過ぎない(にすぎない)

no more than; just; merely; only ~

に伴って(にともなって)

as; due to; with; along with; following; accordingly ~

につけ

every time; whenever; as; whether; in (either case)​

につき

due to; because of; per; each

にわたって

throughout; over a period of ~

にも関わらず(にもかかわらず)

despite; in spite of; nevertheless; although ~

にて

in, at, with, by (formal particle)

のももっともだ

no wonder; …is only natural

の下で(のもとで)

under; with ~

の上では(のうえでは)

according to; from the viewpoint of ~

のみ

only; nothing but​

のみならず

not only; besides; as well as ~

negative verb conjugation; traditional version of ない

抜きにして / 抜きで(ぬきにして/ ぬきで)

without; leaving out; cutting out ~

抜く(ぬく)

to do something from beginning to end; completely, extremely ~

を契機に(をけいきに)

as a good opportunity/chance to; as a result of; make the best of ~

をめぐって

concerning; in regard to ~

をもとに

based on; derived from; building on; beginning with ~

を除いて(をのぞいて)

except; with the exception of; excluding ~

を問わず(をとわず)

regardless of; irrespective of; no matter

お~願う(お~ねがう)

please do; could you please…; I ask of you to ~

おまけに

to make matters worse; besides; what's more; in addition; on top of that​

恐らく(おそらく)

perhaps; likely; probably; I dare say ~

恐れがある(おそれがある)

it is feared that; to be in danger of; to be liable to ~

及び(および)

and; as well as ~

ろくに~ない

not well; not enough; improperly; insufficiently; unsatisfactorily​ ~

幸いなことに(さいわいなことに)

fortunately; luckily; thankfully ~

せいか

perhaps because ~

せめて

at least; at most ~

次第に(しだいに)

gradually (progress into a state); in sequence; in order

しかも

moreover; furthermore; and yet; what’s more ~

その上(そのうえ)

besides; in addition; furthermore ~

それなのに

and yet; despite this; but even so ~

それなら

if that’s the case; if so ~

それにしても

nevertheless; at any rate; even so; be that as it may ~

そう言えば(そういえば)

come to think of it; now that you mention it ~

そうすると

having done that; if that is done; if it is done in that way

末に(すえに)

finally; after; following; at the end/ conclusion of ~

少しも~ない(すこしも~ない)

not one bit; not even a little ~

少なくとも(すくなくとも)

at least ~

たまえ

do~; order somebody to do something

てばかりはいられない

can’t keep doing ~

てでも

even if I have to; by all means ~

て以来(ていらい)

since; henceforth ~

ていては

if one keeps doing ~

てこそ

now that; since (something happened)

てならない

can't help but; dying to; extremely ~

てたまらない

can't help but; dying to; extremely ~

て当然だ(てとうぜんだ)

natural; as a matter of course

ては / では

whenever; if; when~; repetitive action

てはいられない

can’t afford to; unable to ~

てはならない

must not; cannot; should not ~

ては~ては

repetitive situations/actions

と同時に(とどうじに)

at the same time as; while; simultaneously ~

といった

like; such as ~

というふうに

in such a way that ~

ということは

that is to say; so that means; in other words ~

というものだ

something like; something called ~

というものではない

there is no guarantee that…; not necessarily ~

と考えられる(とかんがえられる)

one can think that; it is conceivable that; considered ~

とか(で)

I heard that ~

とっくに

long ago; already; a long time ago

ところだった

was just about to do something; something almost happened

ところに

at the time; just as I was ~

ところを見ると(ところをみると)

judging from; seeing that ~

とも

even if; no matter (who, what, when, where, why, how); though ~

として~ない

not at all; there is not even one

としても

assuming; even if ~

つつ

while; even though; despite ~

つつある

to be doing; to be in the process of doing ~

上は(うえは)

now that; since; as long as ~

はもとより

also; let alone; from the beginning

はともかく

anyhow; anyway; regardless; in any case; whether or not ~

わずかに

slightly; only; barely; narrowly ~

やがて

before long; soon; almost; eventually ~

やら~やら

such things as A and B; A and B and so on ~

よほど / よっぽど

very; greatly; much; to a large extent

よりほかない

to have no choice but ~

ようでは

if ~ (bad result)

ようではないか

let’s do (something); why don’t we ~

ようか~まいか

whether or not; considering options

要するに(ようするに)

in short; in a word; to sum up; to put it simply ~

ざるを得ない(ざるをえない)

cannot help (doing); have no choice but to ~

ずに済む (ずにすむ)

get by without doing ~

敢えて(あえて)

dare to; daringly; deliberately; purposely ~

あくまでも

to the end; persistently; absolutely; is still very ~

案の定(あんのじょう)

just as one thought; as usual; sure enough

あらかじめ

beforehand; in advance; previously​

あっての

which can exist solely due to the presence of; which owes everything to

ばこそ

only because ~

ばそれまでだ / たらそれまでだ

if… then it’s over

べからず / べからざる

must not; should not; do not ~

べく

in order to; for the purpose of ~

べくもない

cannot possibly be ~

べくして

as it is bound to (happen); following the natural course

びる / びて / びた

to seem to be; to appear; to behave as ~

ぶり / っぷり

style; manner; way​

ぶる / ぶって / ぶった

assuming the air of; behaving like; to pretend / act like ~

だに / だにしない

even; not even ~

だの~だの

and; and the like; and so forth ~

だろうに

(1) surely..., but ~; although... is likely, ~ (2) should have (regret); might / must have been ~

であれ / であろうと

whoever; whatever; however; even ~

であれ~であれ

whether ,A or ,B

でもあり~でもある

to also be; both… and ~

でも何でもない / くも何ともない(でもなんでもない / くもなんともない)

not in the least; nothing like that

でなくてなんだろう

must be; is definitely ~

ではあるまいか

isn't it; I wonder if it’s not ~

ではあるまいし

it’s not like; it isn’t as if ~

では済まない(ではすまない)

it doesn’t end with just ~; it will take more than ~

どうにも~ない

not … by any means; no matter how hard one tries, cannot ~

が早いか(がはやいか)

no sooner than; as soon as ~

が/も~なら、~も~だ

negative connection/comparison (like father like son)

がましい

look like; sound like; approximate; similar to; somewhat like ~

がてら

while; on the same occasion; at the same time; coincidentally ~

ごとき / ごとく / ごとし

like; as if; the same as ~

ぐるみ

together (with); -wide

羽目になる(はめになる)

to get stuck with; to end up with (something unpleasant)

ほどのことではない

it's not worth; no need to ~

ほうがましだ

better than; would rather ~

放題(ほうだい)

doing as one pleases; to one's heart's content; leaving uncontrolled

いかんだ / いかんでは / いかんによっては

in accordance with; depending on; whether or not ~

いかんにかかわらず / いかんによらず / いかんをとわず

regardless of; whether or not; doesn't matter whether ~

いかなる

any kind of; every; whatsoever; whatever

いかに

how; in what way; how much; to what extent

いかにも

indeed; really; truly; just (like); very; extremely ~

いずれにしても / いずれにしろ / いずれにせよ

anyhow; anyway; either way; in any case ~

じみた

to become; to appear like; to look like; tainted with ~

か否か(かいなか)

whether or not ~

かと思いきや(かとおもいきや)

contrary to expectations; or so we thought, but ~

限りだ(かぎりだ)

to feel strongly

甲斐もなく(かいもなく)

despite; even though ~

可能性がある(かのうせいがある)

may/might; there’s a possibility that ~

からある / からする / からの

at least; as much as; as many as ~

かれ~かれ

sooner or later; more or less

かたがた

while; at the same time; incidentally; for the purpose of ~

かたわら

while; besides; at the same time; in addition

かつて

once; before; formerly; ever; former; ex-

嫌いがある(きらいがある)

bad habit; to have a tendency to ~

切りがない(きりがない)

endless; boundless; going on forever​; there’s no end to ~

きっての

the most / greatest … of all

極まる / 極まりない(きわまる / きわまりない)

extremely; very ~

こそあれ

although; even though ~

こそすれ

and; although; but ~

こそ「~が・けれど」

but; although (emphasis)

ことごとく

altogether; entirely; completely ~

ことこの上ない / この上ない / この上なく(ことこのうえない / このうえない / このうえなく)

the most of all; the best; nothing is more ... than ~

こともあって

partly because; also because of; plus the reason for ~

ことなしに

without doing something

ことのないように

so as not to; to not ~

こととて

because; since ~

くらいなら

rather than (do ...)​

くらいのものだ

only (emphasis)

までだ / までのことだ

only; just; nothing else

までもない / までもなく

there's no need to; it’s not necessary to ~

まじき

should not; must not ~

まくる

to do over and over again; to do relentlessly

まみれ

covered with; stained; smeared with ~

まるっきり

completely; absolutely; totally; (not) at all​ ~

めく

seems; show signs of; to have the appearance of ~

も同然だ(もどうぜんだ)

just like; same as ~

もさることながら

one may well say so, but~; not only... but also ~

もしないで

without even doing ~

もはや

already; now; no longer; not anymore

もので

because; for that reason

ものを

if only; I wish; I'm sorry it's not actually (regret)

ものと思われる / ものと見られる(ものとおもわれる / ものとみられる)

to think; to suppose; it is believed/expected that ~

ものとする

shall; to assume; understood as ~

ものとして

to assume; to suppose; on the presumption that ~

もしくは

or; otherwise

んばかりに

as if; as though ~

んがために

in order to ~

ながらに / ながらの

while; during; without change; performed in this condition

ないまでも

not to say; although it does not reach the level of ~

ないものでもない

is not entirely impossible

ないものか / ないものだろうか

isn't there; can’t we…?; can’t I…?

ないとも限らない(ないともかぎらない)

not necessarily; I can't say that; maybe; might ~

なくしては

cannot do without ~

並み(なみ)

average; ordinary; same level as; equal to; on par with ~

なんという / なんと / なんて

how (beautiful, etc.); what a ~

何しろ(なにしろ)

at any rate; after all; anyhow; anyway; in any case; because; as you know ~

ならでは

distinctive of; uniquely applying to; special to ~

ならいざしらず / はいざしらず

I don't know about ... but; it may be possible for ... but ~

なり

as soon as; right after ~

なりに / なりの

suitable; in one's own way/style

なりとも

at least; even just a little (adverbial particle)

なり~なり

,A or ,B or something; for instance ~

なしに / なしで

without; without doing ~

and; in addition to; the combination of ~

に値する(にあたいする)

to be worth; to be worthy of; to deserve; to merit​ ~

にあって

at; on; during; in the condition of​ ~

に引き換え(にひきかえ)

compared to; in contrast to; unlike; while; whereas ~

に至る / に至った(にいたる / にいたった)

leads to; come to a conclusion

に至るまで(にいたるまで)

as far as; up until; everything from ... to ~

に至っても(にいたっても)

even if; even though; although something reached the point ~

に至っては(にいたっては)

when it comes to; as for ~